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SME Guide

Waste Not, Profit More: How SMEs Can Reuse, Recycle, and Upcycle to Boost Sustainability

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly conscious of their environmental impact. Yet many worry that sustainability initiatives could hurt their bottom line. However, reusable, recyclable, and upcycled goods and operations can actually boost an SME’s profits and competitive edge. This comprehensive guide explores how small businesses can implement reuse, recycling, and upcycling to simultaneously increase sustainability and income.

Source Recycled Materials

Sourcing recycled raw materials conserves resources while often lowering material costs. Check local listings for recycled paper, plastic, metal, construction supplies, industrial surplus, and more. Manufacturers like TerraCycle offer unique recycled products. Buying recycled also prevents items from reaching landfills. Ensure suppliers adhere to labour and environmental laws. Lead with environmental values in selecting vendors. In many cases, recycled inputs cost less than virgin materials. Lower expenses boost profit margins.

Reuse Shipping and Packaging

Order only the necessary shipping and packaging items in reusable versions, like plastic crates, padding wraps, and pallets. Reuse incoming packaging for outgoing shipments. Encourage vendors to minimise packaging. Set up systems to return and reuse items with suppliers. Design products with returnable, durable packaging. Using reusable transport and packaging cuts purchasing expenses. It also keeps additional waste out of landfills. Be sure to clean and maintain reusable items properly. Work with vendors to make returns and reuse as seamless as possible.

Salvage Discarded Materials creatively

Scour thrift stores, auctions, yard sales, clearance aisles, and industrial discards for unique materials to creatively upcycle. Architectural salvage warehouses are treasure troves of countertops, fixtures, flooring, and more at deep discounts. Manufacturers often discard usable cut-offs. Plentiful discarded items like clothing, furniture, and electronics can be transformed into new products or artworks. Train staff to see potential beyond an item’s original purpose. Salvaging and upcycling discards fosters an innovative, resourceful mindset that boosts the bottom line through cost savings and one-of-a-kind designs.

Prioritise local sourcing.

Choosing locally sourced materials like wood, cotton, wool, and food ingredients reduces transportation emissions and costs. Items made from regional renewable resources also embed sustainability. Research suppliers within a 100-mile radius. Attend local small business fairs to find partners. Local sourcing allows tighter relationships and oversight of vendor practices. It also keeps money circulating in the community. Advertise the local origins of goods as a win for all stakeholders. When options exist, always buy local first.

Design for Durability and Repairability

Engineer products to withstand heavy use and last for years, not just seasons. Select solid, high-quality materials. Use removable fasteners instead of glue. Create clear repair instructions and provide spare parts. Offer services like mending, sharpening, upgrades, and reconditioning. Provide warranties and support older items. Modular design allows replacing only broken components. Repairability gives products longer lives and builds customer loyalty. This approach is the opposite of cheap, disposable items that quickly trigger repeat purchases. Prioritising durability and serviceability aligns business incentives with sustainability.

Rent out underutilised assets

Turn idle assets into profit centres by renting them out in the short term. Unused spaces, production tools and equipment, computing power, kitchens, vehicles, and more can provide “sharing economy” income through platforms like SnapRentals and Rentah. Structure clear rental terms and conditions. Start small with easily rentable assets. Provide sufficient support and staffing for smooth operations. Offer rent-to-own options. Renting maximises the utility you derive from assets while serving community needs. Develop win-win relationships with reliable customers. Assets can work for you even during downtime.

Sell scrap and leftover materials.

Instead of tossing cut-offs, byproducts, swatches, and defective items, sell them for scrap or parts. Metal, rubber, wood, plastic, fabric scraps, and more have resale value for recyclers and upcyclers. Artisans also buy small quantities of materials. Have an employee manage scrap sales through sites like Runa and RecycloHeap. Clear defective inventory and prototypes at a discount. Leftover catering food, bottles, decorations, etc. can be sold too. Proper waste sorting lets you maximise scrap revenue streams. Diverting scrap for sale turns potential waste into profit.

Prioritise energy efficiency.

Boost energy efficiency across operations to shrink utility bills. Switch to LED lighting. Install insulation, weatherproofing, smart thermostats, and double-paned windows. Regularly tune up HVAC systems. Buy Energy Star-certified appliances and equipment. Ensure full loads before running dishwashers, washing machines, etc. Switch off electronics like printers, coffeemakers, and phone chargers when not in use. Replace older motors with high-efficiency models. Automate shutdowns during closed hours. Monitoring usage and optimising systems cuts energy costs substantially.

Harvest Rainwater

Installing rain barrels and cisterns allows free rainwater harvesting for many uses, like irrigation, cleaning, and flushing toilets. Link systems into drainspouts and direct runoff into the storage tanks. Filters provide potable drinking water if desired. Gravity-fed irrigation drip lines distribute water around facilities. Choose UV-resistant storage materials to prevent algae growth. Incorporate rain chains, constructed wetlands, and rain gardens to control and utilise runoff onsite. Using stored rainwater for non-potable purposes slashes utility bills. Never buy bottled water again. Hydrate your business for free with nature’s bounty.

Compost all allowable materials.

Dedicate bins to compost all approved food scraps, paper, cardboard, and other biodegradable matter from your operations and events. Proper composting techniques expedite decomposition into fertile soil amendments. Use compost on gardens, lawns, and planters onsite to close the nutrient loop. Larger amounts can be sold. Alternately, offer compostable dishware and to-go containers to customers and send the remains to municipal composting. Compost, vermicompost, and nutrient cycling foster a circular approach that eliminates waste entirely.

Recover heat and water.

Installing heat exchangers, scrubbers, condensers, and other equipment allows for the capture of heat, water, and other byproducts from production processes for reuse onsite. Assess all effluent streams first for potential applications. For example, steam condensate from an autoclave may provide hot water for cleanup. Data centre heat could warm a building. Reusing recovered materials improves efficiency and payback on equipment investments. Consider collaborating with nearby facilities to share recovered resources if possible. This creative engineering eliminates waste while generating valuable resources.

Choose smarter deliveries.

Assess order delivery strategies to optimise routes, volumes, and packaging. Consolidate shipments whenever possible, even with competitors. Offer incentives for off-peak delivery times. Right-size vehicles and loads to minimise fuel use. Explore electric or human-powered transport for local deliveries. Analyse data to spot efficiencies (number of trips, miles travelled, empty backhauling, etc.). Shortening circuits from maker to customer saves costs and emissions. Delivery plans tailored for sustainability make economic sense too. Partner with logistics providers focused on reducing waste.

Go Paperless

Transition fully away from paper to digital workflows to shrink paper waste and storage needs. Document management systems like DMS4PC help make the switch. Send electronic invoices and statements instead of printing them. Sign up for paperless banking and billing. Use shared cloud folders instead of printing reports and memos for internal use. Block unwanted junk mail and catalogues. Specify electronic-only wherever possible, from legal contracts to employee policies. Support telecommuting and videoconferencing to cut commute impacts too. Phasing out paper cuts expenses and clutter substantially.

Use non-toxic cleaning and maintenance supplies.

Replace harsh chemical cleaners and detergents with non-toxic, eco-friendly versions. Look for plant-based, biodegradable ingredients carrying certifications like Safer Choice. Make your own sprays from vinegar, lemon juice, and other natural antibacterials. Install greener HVAC air filters. Maintain vehicles regularly to prevent leaks. Properly dispose of hazardous materials like chemicals, batteries, and bulbs. Non-toxic operations protect the health of employees, customers, and the environment. They may qualify your business for discounts on insurance and loans, too.

Choose sustainable office and facility supplies.

Provide workers with refillable pens instead of throwaway ones. Stock washrooms with energy-efficient hand dryers rather than paper towels. Serve drinks in durable cups with a dishwashing station. Use reusable cloth rags and mops instead of paper products. Send electronic paystubs and forms instead of printing them. Provide communal snacks in bulk containers with recycling bins for single-use portions. Furnish spaces with previously used cubicle systems and office furniture. There are green alternatives for virtually every item and system. Securing sustainable supplies demonstrates commitment.

Feature Upcycled and Reused Goods

Incorporate upcycled and reused materials into product designs for uniqueness and environmental benefit. Use reclaimed wood, recycled plastic bottles, fabric scraps, damaged ceramic tiles, old drawer pulls, and similar items creatively in products. Support artisans and suppliers who upcycle discarded items into new goods. Feature their products in your store and tell their stories. Offer limited editions made exclusively from reused materials. Prominently advertise the recycled or upcycled nature of your offerings. This showcases your values while producing a distinctive inventory.

Install eco-friendly flooring.

When replacing flooring, select eco-friendly options like bamboo, earthenware tiles made with recycled glass, reclaimed hardwoods, cork, natural linoleum, and PVC-free plastics like polypropylene. Check for certifications like FloorScore. Use low-VOC, water-based adhesives for installation. Properly remove and dispose of old flooring for recycling. Pads beneath carpets can be made of recycled tires. Green flooring alternatives exist for virtually every application and budget. They offer health, aesthetic, and sustainability advantages.

Plant Native Vegetation on Site

Replace excessive lawns with biodiverse native plantings requiring minimal watering and care. Work with landscapers to select plants well-suited to the local soils and climate. This eliminates irrigation and maintenance for non-native species. Allow some natural, unmowed meadow areas. Plant trees strategically to provide cooling shade and clean the air. Label botanical names and benefits for visitors. Native, climate-appropriate vegetation protects habitats and creates beautiful, peaceful surroundings for guests and employees. It also connects people with the local ecosystem.

Build or retrofit green spaces.

All new construction and retrofits should utilise sustainable principles. Seek LEED, EnergyStar, and similar green building certifications. Strategies like passive solar design, occupancy sensors, low-flow fixtures, cool roofs, responsible site selection, natural light and ventilation, permeable pavements, and native plantings shrink environmental footprints. Convert unusable spaces like alleys into pocket parks. Install green roofs, rain gardens, or bioswales. Use Design for Disassembly principles to facilitate future reuse. Sustainable design saves money long-term while creating healthy spaces.

Power Operations with Clean Energy

Transition to renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal to power facilities and vehicles. Install panels, purchase credits, or enrol in community solar programs through utilities. Size systems to your needs using specialists like Solarway and Darway Coast. Explore options for purchasing renewable power from the grid if onsite generation is impractical. Use clean energy to produce heat, fuel, and electricity. Some systems provide backup resilience too. Phasing out fossil fuels demonstrates your values. It also stabilises long-term energy pricing.

Revamp Food Service for Sustainability

For any food and beverage operation, prioritise plant-based menu options with small meat portions as complements. Give diners meatless meal choices and descriptors. Procure local, organic ingredients to shrink supply chain impacts. Compost all food scraps. Eliminate single-use tableware by providing reusable serveware and onsite dishwashing. Serve water solely from reusable pitchers with paperless tabletop signage. These steps slashed waste while pleasing diners. Food services present many creative opportunities to “go green.”

Setup Reusable Transport Programmes

Reduce single-use packaging and transport emissions by establishing reusable container programs. Provide standard totes, crates, pallets, barrels, etc. to vendors and have them picked up and returned after use. Create digital check-in/check-out systems to track containers. Rinse and inspect upon return. Use durable produce baskets and mugs for prepared foods and beverages, collecting them after use. Standardise containers for easy stacking and cleaning. Washing and reusing durable transport packaging nearly eliminates waste compared to one-way options. The logistics may take work to perfect, but programmes reduce environmental and material impacts substantially.

Host zero-waste events.

Make business or community events zero-waste by requiring sustainable vendors, banning single-use items, and providing ample composting and recycling. Specify recyclable decor like fabric bunting and bamboo banners versus balloons and confetti. Choose reusable glassware, linens, and serveware. Provide centralised water stations with compostable cups. Set up clearly labelled waste sorting stations throughout venues. Follow up with vendors and facilities on the final disposition of event discards. With planning, events can demonstrate sustainability leadership.

Incentivize greener transportation.

Encourage employees and customers to commute via public transit, bikes, carpools, or walking. Offer transit passes and corporate carpool programs. Install secure bike parking and storage lockers. Provide electric vehicle charging stations. Allow flexible schedules for off-peak travel. Offer discounts for arriving without cars. Set up videoconferencing to avoid travel. Locate facilities near residential neighbourhoods and transit hubs. Ensuring easy accessibility by using greener modes cuts transportation emissions and costs substantially. It also boosts employee satisfaction.

Join a sustainability consortium.

Become a member of organisations advancing sustainability in your sector, like the Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council or the Sustainable Agriculture Initiative Platform. Attend conferences and trainings to stay on top of the news. Partner with vendors meeting sustainability criteria. Get involved with standard development. Adopt environmental management systems for continual improvement, like ISO 14001. Access grants and incentives for green business practices. Trade groups provide knowledge sharing that helps maximise profitable sustainability.

Finance Upgrades with Incentives

Check for federal, state, utility, and nonprofit incentives to defray the costs of upgrades like renewable energy systems, building retrofits, EVs, recycling equipment, greener fleet vehicles, and energy assessments. Read the details carefully to qualify. The USDA’s REAP programme offers grants and financing for rural businesses.

Earn revenue from your own waste.

Instead of paying for waste disposal, earn income from your recyclables and organic matter. Setup accounts with buyers of paper, plastic, glass, electronics, wood, food waste, yard trimmings, and more. Get the best prices by sorting materials and delivering them directly to buyers, versus using middleman recycling companies. Research potential products to make from waste, like biofuels or bioplastics. With some creativity, waste becomes income. Keep expanding your revenue-generating waste streams.

Achieve zero waste.

Make zero-waste the ultimate goal by perpetually working to eliminate discards through reuse, recycling, composting, and avoiding waste. Perform waste audits to identify the top categories and volumes. Attack the biggest waste streams first. Engage staff in helping reach zero waste through incentive programmes and feedback channels. Continually research options to recycle items previously landfilled, like textiles or foam. Pursue circular approaches such as takeback systems and servicing versus selling products. With persistence, at least 90% diversion from landfills is achievable. Zero waste maximises resource efficiency.

Purchase carbon offsets.

After reducing emissions in every way possible, purchase verified carbon offsets to mitigate the remaining unavoidable emissions from shipping, travel, utilities, and operations. Quality credits fund projects like forest conservation, tree planting, renewable energy, methane capture, and similar efforts. Work with reputable offset providers like ClimateCare and Carbonfund. Calculate offset amounts using emissions calculators. Promote the offsets to show customers their dedication to full carbon neutrality. Offsets demonstrate commitment until emissions can be eliminated completely. They invest in building climate solutions.

Develop sustainable procurement policies.

Create formal policies that require purchasing decisions. evaluate sustainability factors like energy use, emissions, durability, recyclability, equity, supplier practices, and other environmental and social impacts. Prioritise green and local vendors meeting criteria. Build requirements into RFP processes. Educate procurement personnel on holistic total cost analysis spanning the full supply chain. Draft supplier codes of conduct addressing labour practices, materials, traceability, and other facets. Adopt electronic procurement systems and inventories to optimise orders and reduce waste. Strategic sourcing and purchasing provide critical leverage to support broader objectives.

Recruit sustainability talent.

Hire staff dedicated exclusively to coordinating environmental and social responsibility programmes and identifying new innovations. They develop strategy, track compliance, liaise with stakeholders, compile reports, lead change management, and expand initiatives. Assign clear oversight and accountability. Look for candidates with proven environmental and sustainability expertise and passion for the role. Provide a budget for ongoing training. Investing in dedicated talent multiplies the gains from other efforts. They also help embed sustainability into the culture.

Continually educate employees.

Offer regular training to inform all employees on sustainability goals, policies, and procedures. Share big-picture context on issues like climate change, waste, and water use to show why green practices matter. Demonstrate how to correctly follow recycling and composting protocols. Create green employee manuals covering environmentally preferred choices for office supplies, cleaning solutions, events, catering, transportation, and more. Make introductory and refresher courses mandatory. Enable anonymous feedback channels on programming. An educated workforce is essential for the successful execution of green programmes.

Innovate Circular Business Models

Consider revolutionary transitions like shifting from sales to leasing or servicing durable products. Design products as upgradable platforms. Take back used items for refurbishment and resale. Build or join material marketplaces and redistribute networks. Provide product upgrades and repairs. Offer access to equipment, tools, and spaces via subscriptions instead of ownership. These circular models align the business around maximising product utility rather than driving repeat sales. Reduce the throughput of resources over time to advance sustainability.

Share sustainability reports and stories.

Communicate commitment to employees, vendors, policymakers, and the public through annual reports detailing progress and goals. Select key performance indicators like waste diversion rate, greenhouse gases, water use, and training hours. Compare against past years and external benchmarks. Profile green products and partnerships. Share success stories. Post announcements and infographics on the website and social media. Transparency builds trust and accountability. Reports demonstrate seriousness while allowing input on future initiatives. They also market your values and achievements to all stakeholders.


The urgency of environmental and social challenges calls businesses to action. However, sustainability must align with financial viability. Fortunately, reusable, recyclable, and upcycled models offer powerful ways to simultaneously benefit profit, people, and the planet. From sourcing recycled materials to designing for durability to pursuing zero waste, SMEs have many options to implement circularity across operations. Your company can lead by example while enjoying the perks of efficiency, resourcefulness, community, and long-term resilience. Waste less and profit more today through reuse, recycling, and upcycling. Your business, community, and world will all prosper.


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