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Untapped Potential: Uncovering Akwa Ibom’s Rich Mineral Reserves


Nestled in Nigeria’s oil-rich South-South region, Akwa Ibom State possesses immense unexploited mineral potential. Home to 31 million people, Nigeria boasts some of Africa’s largest mineral deposits, with mining contributing just 0.3% to its GDP. Akwa Ibom holds over 100 untapped minerals in commercial quantities. Developing these reserves promises massive economic gains for the state and nation. This article explores Akwa Ibom’s key undeveloped mineral resources, the opportunities they present, and strategies to leverage this bounty.

Akwa Ibom State Overview

Located in coastal southern Nigeria, Akwa Ibom is one of Nigeria’s 36 states. With a population of 5.5 million, it is Nigeria’s 10th most populous state. Akwa Ibom’s capital is Uyo, with other major cities including Eket and Ikot Ekpene. The state is one of Nigeria’s leading oil and gas producers.

However, beyond oil, Akwa Ibom houses over 100 uncovered solid mineral resources across its 31,000 square kilometers. These range from gold to iron ore, uranium, quartz, limestone, salt, coal, silver, glass sand, and more. Despite this bounty, mining contributes 4% to Akwa Ibom’s GDP presently.

The Significance of Uncovering Akwa Ibom’s Mineral Reserves

Exploiting Akwa Ibom’s untapped mineral endowment holds tremendous economic significance for the state and country. Key benefits include:

Revenue Generation

Monetizing idle mineral reserves generates revenues for the government, companies, and communities. For example, limestone deposits can support active cement manufacturing.

Job Creation

Developing minerals creates jobs across the value chain, from extraction to processing and logistics. With over 30% youth unemployment, this addresses a critical need.


Mineral exploitation enables secondary industries, including mining equipment, transportation, refining, construction, and much more. This advances manufacturing and economic diversification.

Infrastructure Growth

Mining development facilitates infrastructure upgrades like roads, rail, ports, and power to support operations. Better infrastructure attracts investment.


Mineral production allows the export of raw and refined minerals. In 2020, Nigeria exported $40.6 billion in mineral products. More production expands exports.

With these benefits in view, unlocking Akwa Ibom’s idle mineral reserves can catalyse broad growth and transformation.

Major Untapped Mineral Endowments

Akwa Ibom State is blessed with abundant untapped mineral resources. High-potential deposits include:


Limestone reserves in Akwa Ibom exceed 100 million metric tonnes across three local governments: Eket, Onna, and Oruk Anam. Limestone has extensive uses, including in cement, glass, paper, and smelting.


Gold occurrences have been confirmed across five local governments in Akwa Ibom. Gold mining supports the jewellery, electronics, and finance industries.


Clay deposits in Akwa Ibom allow refractory production for furnaces and ceramics manufacturing.

Glass Sand

High-grade glass sand suitable for bottle and glass production exists throughout the state.

Iron Ore

Iron ore resources have been found in commercial volumes in the Itu, Uruan, and Okobo areas. Iron is critical for steel production.


Coal, used for power generation and smelting, has been identified in five local governments in Akwa Ibom.


Rock salt for human consumption and industrial applications has been confirmed along the coast.


Feldspar deposits support glass and ceramics manufacturing. It occurs in Akwa Ibom’s northern and central areas.

These reserves demonstrate the rich possibilities within Akwa Ibom today. Transforming these idle deposits into active production is an urgent task ahead.

Challenges Hindering Mineral Resource Development

Despite its vast endowments, some key factors have constrained Akwa Ibom’s mineral potential. These include:

Insufficient geological data

Limited mineralogical surveys and data hamper understanding deposits’ locations and commercial viability. More rigorous geological research is needed.

Lack of modern mining infrastructure

Poor infrastructure like roads, power, rail, and ports stifles the exploitation of mineral reserves. Major infrastructure upgrades are essential.

Low private sector participation

High risks and costs have limited mining companies exploration of Akwa Ibom’s minerals. More incentives and support for private miners are vital.

Insufficient funding and investment

Limited funding for surveys, facilities, operations, and logistics hinders mineral development. Increased public and private financing is imperative.

Weak Enabling Environment

Bureaucratic hurdles, corruption, poor policies, and community issues discourage mining investments. Improving the ease of doing business matters.

Addressing these bottlenecks will expedite translating Akwa Ibom’s hidden mineral endowment into tangible production and prosperity.

Strategic Roadmap for Unlocking Akwa Ibom’s Mineral Potentials

A clear strategic roadmap can catalyse Akwa Ibom’s rise as a mineral powerhouse. Key elements include:

Prioritise high-potential minerals

Focus early efforts on gold, iron ore, limestone, and other minerals with confirmed reserves and strong economics. Establish a few early successes.

Support more geological surveys.

Commission advanced mineralogical studies to expand state geological data. Improved data allows for the identification of the most prospective minerals and locations.

Upgrade critical infrastructure

Develop transport, power, water, ICT, and other infrastructure to enable mining. Improved rail, sea ports, and roads will be essential.

Provide incentives to miners.

Offer tax breaks, licence fast-tracking, import duty waivers, and other incentives to attract large private miners and investors.

Develop special economic zones.

Establish dedicated, serviced industrial zones near promising mineral belts to concentrate investments. Facilitate permits and approvals there.

Enhance Security

Beef up security and monitoring across mining regions. Pervasive theft and violence discourage miners.

Invest in human capital.

Develop local talent via vocational programmes and university partnerships. A capable workforce will strengthen the industry.

Engage Communities

Secure community buy-in and address local concerns through engagement. Avoid destructive community conflicts.

Upgrade transport infrastructure.

Expand road, rail, and marine infrastructure for efficient mineral logistics and supply chains. Improve connections to major demand centres.

With strategic prioritisation, research, policy reform, investment, and public-private partnerships, Akwa Ibom can build a thriving, sustainable mineral economy that generates prosperity.

Prospective Mines Supporting Development Goals

Certain prospective mines offer especially promising potential to support Akwa Ibom’s development goals if activated. These priority projects include:

Limestone Growth through the United Cement Company

The United Cement Company, located in Mfamosing, has limestone reserves exceeding 100 million metric tonnes. The company aims to expand its capacity from 2 to 5 million metric tonnes annually to become a regional cement powerhouse. This aligns with state industrialization and export goals.

Dobi Gold Refinery for Value Addition

Dobi Gold Refinery, located in Onna LGA, could support gold jewellery manufacturing and exports, capturing more value locally. But productivity is currently low.

Iron Ore Development through Multiverse Mining

Headquartered in Uyo, Multiverse Mining acquired rights to develop a 1 billion-tonne iron ore reserve in Akai Ubium. This can feed regional steel plants.

Uranium production through Amalgamated Metal Corporation

Uranium occurs near Uyo. Local processing could aid nuclear energy expansion. But productivity is stalled despite AMC’s licences.

Coal Mining Revival in Okobo

Okobo’s coal reserves are substantial but untouched. Reviving coal production could support power generation and manufacturing. But the previous state mine closed.

With strategic partnerships, investments, and policy backing, marquee mines like these could spearhead Akwa Ibom’s rise as a mineral economy while creating jobs and prosperity.

Role of Fiscal Regimes and Policies

To incentivize investments, the federal and state governments shape various mineral development policies and fiscal frameworks. Key policy priorities for Akwa Ibom include:

Review royalty rates.

Royalty rates on minerals should be competitive while generating revenues. Avoid disincentivizing miners with excessive rates.

Offer tax holidays.

Generous tax holidays for new projects lower costs during the risky early years. This makes investments more attractive.

Simplify Licencing

Streamline mineral licencing processes and reduce red tape through digitization and tighter timelines. Complexity blocks newcomers.

Prioritise health and safety.

Strengthen monitoring and penalties for health and safety breaches. Boost accountability and industry standards.

Build local content.

Local content policies that promote domestic inputs, contractors, and jobs should be enacted.

Enforce Use-it-or-Lose-It

The forfeiture of idle mining licences will prevent speculators from hoarding reserves. New, capable entrants can unlock the resources.

Akwa Ibom has a strong foundation from Nigeria’s policy reforms to build on. Further enhancements can accelerate mineral developments.

Recommendations for a Vibrant Mineral Economy

Unlocking the state’s mineral endowment for prosperity demands strategic action across key fronts:

Prioritise high-potential minerals: Focus early efforts on the minerals with the most prospective reserves and commercial viability. Build momentum and capabilities.

Fix infrastructure gaps: Upgrade transport, power, ICT, and water infrastructure to enable large-scale mining activities. Fixing infrastructure weaknesses is urgent.

Offer competitive investor incentives: provide licencing ease, tax holidays, customs waivers, and other incentives to attract capable mining companies. Ease investments.

Develop local talent: Establish technical programmes, vocational training, and education partnerships to build local expertise. A capable workforce will strengthen the industry.

Formalise artisanal mining: Bring informal miners into a legal framework. Provide equipment, financing, and training to improve their operations while formalising revenues.

Enforce standards: strengthen monitoring and penalties for breaches of regulations around health, safety, environmental protection, and more.

Engage communities: Proactively communicate with and address local concerns through town halls and engagement. Avoid destructive conflicts.

Upgrade logistics infrastructure: expand cargo rail, inland container depots, and marine ports for smoother mineral logistics and supply chains domestically and internationally.

Akwa Ibom has a ripe opportunity to transform its economy by strategically harnessing its abundant mineral endowment. The state can leverage its mineral wealth to be an industrial powerhouse in Nigeria and internationally. With robust policies, sustained investments, and public-private partnerships, a vibrant formal mining sector will generate game-changing economic, manufacturing, and export growth.


As this analysis has shown, Akwa Ibom State possesses tremendous untapped solid mineral potential waiting to be unlocked. Its reserves of gold, iron ore, uranium, limestone, coal, salt, and more hold the promise of large-scale mining revenues, investment, jobs, and enterprise growth. With strategic prioritisation, research, infrastructure upgrades, conducive policies, security, and community engagement, Akwa Ibom can catalyse a thriving mineral-led economy.

Transforming these dormant mineral reserves into dynamic engines of growth and diversification will be a game-changer. There are immense opportunities to support industries from cement to steel, jewellery to ceramics, and develop associated logistical and technological capabilities. Akwa Ibom’s vast hidden mineral wealth provides a platform to power the state to new heights of income, infrastructure, and influence if decisive steps are taken today to uncover and unleash it.

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