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SME Guide

Untapped Mineral Deposits: 5 Key Minerals in Bayelsa State and Their Economic Potential

Bayelsa State in Nigeria’s oil-rich South-South region is endowed with abundant natural resources beyond just petroleum. Several valuable minerals with immense untapped potential exist across the state. Identifying and harnessing these underexploited mineral deposits can drive economic diversification and growth in Bayelsa. This article examines 5 major minerals present in the state and their economic prospects.


Overview of Limestone Occurrences

Limestone deposits have been identified across several Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Bayelsa State, including Ogbia, Nembe, Brass, Yenagoa and Sagbama. Studies estimate total limestone reserves in excess of 30 million tonnes concentrated around Imiringi, Agbere, Osokolo, and Otueke.

Key Uses and Applications

Limestone has a wide range of industrial applications that present major utilization opportunities:

Cement Manufacturing

Limestone is the chief raw material for making cement. The availability of high-grade limestone makes cement production viable in the state.

Steel Production

Limestone is used as a fluxing material in the production of steel to remove impurities. Bayelsa’s limestone can support local steel manufacturing.

Water Treatment

Calcium carbonate from limestone acts as a purifying agent in water treatment plants for removing particulates and softening water.

Construction Industry

Limestone is a key ingredient in concrete, mortar, plasters, road construction, and other building materials. It is also used as a filler and whitening agent.


In agriculture, limestone reduces soil acidity and adds essential nutrients. It improves fertility for increased crop yields.

Key Challenges and Recommendations

Despite huge limestone reserves, exploitation has been limited in Bayelsa. Some recommended measures to tap this potential include:

  • Detailed geological surveys to ascertain precise locations and grades of deposits.
  • Setting up cement plants, steel factories, and water treatment infrastructure to encourage local utilization.
  • Improving transportation infrastructure for cost-effective limestone logistics and trade.
  • Financial incentives like tax holidays to attract private mining and cement companies.
  • Strict environmental guidelines for sustainable limestone quarrying and processing.

Glass Sand

Abundance Across Coastal Areas

High-quality silica sand suitable for glass making occurs abundantly across several coastal LGAs in Bayelsa, including Brass, Nembe, and Ekeremor. The sand contains 95%+ silica content and negligible impurities.

Applications in the Glass Industry

The glass-grade sand can spur the establishment of various manufacturing units:

Glass Bottles and Containers

Sand is the main component in glass bottle and container production. Abundant reserves make Bayelsa ideal for bottling plants.

Flat Glass

Silica sand is also a raw material for architectural and automotive flat glass. Local sand availability can attract flat glass projects.

Glassware and Ceramics

Bayelsa’s silica sand also holds strong potential for tableware, decorative ware, and ceramic goods production.

Boosting Utilization

Despite huge reserves, Bayelsa’s glass sand remains untapped. Some recommendations for harnessing the deposits:

  • Surveying to estimate precise distribution and quantities across coastal LGAs.
  • Fiscal incentives for companies to set up bottling plants, flat glass, and glassware factories.
  • Developing shipping terminals and land transport infrastructure for sand logistics.
  • Facilitating joint ventures between state agencies, private players and technical partners to establish plants.
  • Creating a regulatory framework for monitoring the environmental impact of large-scale sand mining.


Widespread Deposits

Significant gypsum deposits have been identified in Southern Ijaw LGA and parts of Ekeremor LGA in Bayelsa. Studies indicate total reserves could be up to 20 million tonnes concentrated around the cities of Isampou and Gbarain.

Key Application Areas

Gypsum has many industrial uses that can drive economic activities if the tapping of reserves is expedited:

Cement Additive

Gypsum is added to Portland cement to regulate setting time and prevent flash hardening. Bayelsa’s reserves can substitute imports.

Plasterboard Production

Gypsum is the main component in plasterboards used extensively in the construction for walls and partitions. Feasible to set up plasterboard factories.

Soil Amendment

Gypsum improves soil structure, texture and fertility. It can reclaim salty soils. Useful for Bayelsa’s agriculture.

Fertilizer Production

Gypsum is used in ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and other fertilizer production. Can support setting up fertilizer plants.

Recommendations for Increased Exploitation

  • Detailed gypsum deposit mapping through advanced geological surveys.
  • Financial incentives for private companies to establish gypsum mining, plasterboard units and cement blending projects.
  • Building haulage infrastructure to connect mines to utilization hubs.
  • Training programs for the local workforce in gypsum mining and processing.
  • Guidelines for mitigating environmental impact of gypsum mining.


Widespread Distribution of Clay

Kaolin, ball and bentonite clays are found across Bayelsa state. Substantial kaolin reserves have been identified around Gbarain, Imiringi and the Sombreiro River. Bentonite and ball clay deposits are spread across Brass, Nembe and Southern Ijaw LGAs.

Key Applications with Growth Potential

Bayelsa’s clays present multiple investment opportunities:

Ceramics Manufacturing

Kaolin and ball clays are crucial for tableware, sanitaryware, tiles, pottery and porcelain. Huge scope for the ceramic products industry.


Bentonite, kaolin and ball clays can support domestic refractory production for furnace linings, insulation etc.

Construction Products

Clays are used in bricks, pipes, roof tiles, cement etc. Local clay promotes cheaper construction materials.

Bleaching, Absorbents and Catalysts

The clays have applications in edible oil refining, petrochemicals and other sectors as bleaching agents, absorbents and catalysts.

Drilling Fluids

Bentonite clays help make drilling muds and fluids for Nigeria’s oil/gas sector. Can reduce reliance on imports.

Measures to Boost Utilization

  • Additional deposit surveys since current data is limited.
  • Building access infrastructure like roads and rail to key clay reserves.
  • Offering financial incentives for private sector companies to invest in clay projects.
  • Expanding clay-based vocational training programs.
  • Enforcing environmental regulations in clay quarrying and processing.

Tar Sands

Reserves in Southern Ijaw LGA

Vast deposits of tar sands have been found in the shallow offshore and onshore areas of Southern Ijaw LGA, concentrated around the towns of Oporoma, Otuan, and Ekeremor. Total reserves are estimated at over 2 billion barrels.

Key Economic Products

Exploiting Bayelsa’s tar sands can yield several high-value petroleum products:


Tar sands contain 10-12% bitumen that can be extracted and refined into synthetic crude oil and other fuels/petrochemicals.

Industrial By-Products

Processing tar sands also yields lubricating oils, waxes, coke and solvents as profitable by-products.

Strategies for Increased Exploitation

  • Advanced exploration using 3D seismic surveys to determine commercially viable deposits.
  • Huge investments are needed for large-scale mining, bitumen extraction and processing infrastructure. Attracting foreign capital is crucial.
  • Technology partnerships with global majors like Shell and ExxonMobil with tar sands expertise.
  • Leveraging the geographic proximity with existing refineries in neighbouring states for bitumen refining.
  • Robust environmental regulations must be instituted right from the planning stage to mitigate pollution from tailings.


In summary, Bayelsa State is enormously endowed with high-value minerals beyond oil and gas. But decades of reliance on crude oil have led to these resources remaining largely untouched. With the right strategies, these untapped and underexploited mineral deposits can stimulate industrial diversification, job creation, infrastructure development and wider economic opportunities across Bayelsa. The time to harness this mineral wealth through proactive government initiatives, progressive regulatory policies, and public-private partnerships is now.

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