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Skill Development for Employment: The Growing Need for Vocational Training in Nigeria

Nigeria is facing a massive youth unemployment crisis. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, the unemployment rate rose to 33.3% in the fourth quarter of 2020, with over 23 million Nigerians unemployed. This situation is worsened by the fact that employers frequently cite the lack of job readiness and possession of employable skills as a major hindrance to youth employment in Nigeria.

There is an urgent need to bridge the skills gap and equip Nigerian youth with vocational and technical skills that make them employable in today’s job market. Vocational education and training (VET) is increasingly being seen as a viable solution to the employability challenge.

What is Vocational Education and Training?

Vocational education, also known as vocational education and training or career and technical education, prepares learners for direct entry into specific occupations. Its curriculum focuses on providing hands-on skills training tied to industry workforce needs.

VET programs cultivate both hard and soft skills that make graduates job-ready. Hard skills include occupation-specific technical competencies while soft skills cover general abilities like communication, teamwork, problem-solving and work ethic.

The training adopts a practical approach, combining classroom instruction with on-the-job training, internships, and apprenticeships. The mix of theory and applied learning enables the development of a skilled workforce with expertise in diverse fields like agriculture, manufacturing, fashion, construction, business, IT and more.

Vocational Training Enhances Employability

There is a strong link between vocational training and enhanced employment outcomes. A UNESCO study covering 15 countries in Africa found that graduates of technical and vocational programs have higher labour market participation and access to better quality jobs.

68% of companies surveyed in Africa by the German development agency GIZ said VET graduates met job requirements compared to only 55% for general education graduates. McKinsey similarly found that graduates with VET qualifications improve their chances of finding work by 7 to 15 percentage points.

Beyond instilling technical capabilities, VET also inculcates critical soft skills like communication, resourcefulness, time management and professional ethics. This combination of hard technical aptitude and soft personal abilities produces graduates who can thrive in modern work environments.

Addressing the Skills Mismatch in the Nigerian Labor Market

There exists a considerable mismatch between graduate skills and employer needs within Nigeria. A British Council study found that 61% of Nigerian employers reported difficulties finding candidates with appropriate skills and expertise.

The skills gap spans both technical hard skills and soft skills like problem-solving, creativity, collaboration and communication. Vocational training bridges this gap through occupation-focused education and training that keeps pace with industry skill demands.

VET colleges foster close ties with businesses to align program content with dynamic sector-specific skills requirements. Work-based learning elements like apprenticeships and internships also enable trainees to develop marketable skills that employers actually need.

Benefits of Vocational Training for Economic Growth

Investment in vocational education generates positive spill-over effects that boost productivity and economic growth. An educated and skilled workforce facilitates business expansion, innovation, and the move up the global value chain into more complex manufacturing and service activities.

According to the World Bank, vocational training can yield returns on investment for individuals and society of up to 26%. Trainees gain access to gainful employment and higher lifetime earnings while employers and the broader economy benefit from an adequately skilled workforce.

UNESCO advocates technical and vocational training as a key lever for achieving inclusive and sustainable economic development in the SDGs era. Nigeria can leverage VET to reduce socioeconomic gaps and accelerate its stuttering industrialization.

Advantages of Vocational Training for Learners

Enhanced Employability and Income Potential

Vocational training endows learners with specialized skill sets relevant to industry needs. This makes them highly employable, reducing time spent jobless after school. Quick labour market entry enables them to start earning sooner and avoid skills atrophy that comes with prolonged unemployment.

On average, VET learners secure employment faster with higher remuneration compared to their traditionally educated counterparts. They can more easily transition into steady decent work and promising career pathways within their vocational field.

Gain Hard and Soft Skills for the World of Work

VET curriculum delivers a mix of hard technical and soft personal skills vital for workplace success. Students acquire hands-on technical capabilities directly applicable to target occupations. Soft skills development likewise prepares them for professional work environments.

This combination makes vocationally trained graduates uniquely work-ready. They possess not just theoretical knowledge but demonstrable practical competence required by employers.

Expanded Tertiary Education Options and Career Progression

Vocational qualifications offer multiple tertiary education and career advancement pathways beyond secondary school. Learners can proceed to tertiary technical colleges, polytechnics or colleges of education to obtain advanced diplomas and degrees.

Many VET programs incorporate credit transfer arrangements enabling continuation into related higher education courses following skills training. This facilitates lifelong learning and career development.

Alternative to Academic Education

VET presents an alternative to a purely academic curriculum for non-academically inclined learners. The practical training methodology provides an avenue to a meaningful, gainful career even without strong academic abilities or resources to pursue higher education.

Vocational training nurtures talents and interests of learners with strengths in more applied, technical subjects. It broadens education and employment options outside traditional academic settings.

Challenges Confronting Vocational Training in Nigeria

While vocational education holds immense potential benefits, its growth in Nigeria faces multiple constraints:

Negative Societal Perceptions

VET is perceived as a last resort for underperforming students by many in Nigeria. The bias for university education as the premium path to success diminishes VET’s appeal. Changing mindsets is vital for increased adoption.

Underfunding of VET Institutions

Government expenditure on vocational and technical education in Nigeria accounts for a paltry 3% of the total education budget. The resultant poor infrastructure and inadequate training facilities hamper program quality and intake capacity.

Weak Integration with Industry

Curriculum development and review processes often exclude industry participation. This leads to misalignment between graduate competencies and dynamic labour market skill needs.

Limited Career Guidance and Counseling

Many students have limited awareness of VET career pathways in Nigeria. Effective guidance and counselling from an early stage is imperative for informed career decision-making.

Low-Quality Teaching

A majority of VET instructors in Nigeria lack industrial skills and experience. Poor pedagogical training also hinders their efficacy in delivering sound vocational training.

Limited Access

With under 180 government technical colleges nationwide, training opportunities remain scarce in many regions. Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged. Private institutional participation is thus vital for broadened access.

The Need for More Vocational Training Opportunities in Nigeria

Boosting vocational education and training opportunities in view of its merits is imperative for Nigeria. Key interventions needed include:

Increased Funding and Investment

Adequate financing for vocational programs and infrastructure is needed via increased public budgets and private sector contributions through taxes and the education levy.

Tax Incentives for VET Engagement

Providing tax deductions and credits for expenses on vocational training initiatives can spur greater company participation and investment.

Strengthen Instructor Quality and Pedagogy

VET teacher education and recruitment processes should be overhauled to ensure competent instructors with robust industrial experience and sound teaching skills.

Upgrade Training Facilities and Technology

Modernizing training workshops and integrating technologies like simulations will aid the delivery of market-relevant skills to learners. Partnerships with industry players can enable technology transfer.

Strengthen Industry Linkages

Formal collaborative frameworks between VET institutions and industry partners should be instituted for curriculum alignment with labour market needs. Internships and apprenticeships should also be expanded.

Enhance Career Advocacy and Adoption

Raising public awareness on VET career prospects and fostering links between vocational colleges and secondary schools will widen access.

Expand Access and Equity

Deliberate policies to proliferate vocational training opportunities including in rural areas and for disadvantaged groups are imperative. Public-private partnerships can aid rapid scale-up.

Quality Assurance Mechanisms

Robust VET audit and accreditation systems are needed to ensure adherence to quality standards by providers. Graduation and placement rates should be tracked.

The Promise of Digital Skills and Future-Ready Training

Digitization is rapidly changing the employment landscape. Nigeria’s VET system must keep pace by integrating digital skills training into program offerings.

Curricula should teach core literacies like information technology, data analytics, digital marketing and content creation. Training modes must also increasingly adopt technology-aided delivery including blended online-offline learning.

Emerging fields like robotics, artificial intelligence, renewable energy and precision agriculture hold much potential. VET providers must forecast skills of the future and ensure learner readiness for jobs of tomorrow.

Flexible and responsive program design focused on nurturing adaptive lifelong learning is imperative for sustainable employability.


Vocational training is a strategic pathway for driving inclusive growth and shared prosperity in Nigeria through skill development and employment creation. It promises immense socioeconomic returns when underpinned by deliberate supportive policies and partnerships.

With visionary leadership, strong industry collaboration and sustained investment, Nigeria can systematically strengthen its VET system to be globally competitive. The time for action is now to turn the growing skill gap into gainful opportunities for Nigerian youth.

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