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SME Guide

Peacebuilding: Ending Inter-Communal Violence and Conflict in Nigeria

Nigeria has faced immense challenges with internal conflicts driven by ethnic, religious and regional differences. Inter-communal clashes have resulted in massive loss of lives and properties over the years. Urgent action is needed to promote peacebuilding and permanently end this cycle of violence.

This article provides a comprehensive overview of pathways and strategies for building sustainable peace in Nigeria by overcoming division and fostering unity:

Understanding Key Drivers of Conflict

Designing effective peace solutions requires analysing the complex factors fuelling violence and unrest across Nigerian communities:

Resource Control

Struggles between ethnic groups for ownership and control of oil and mineral resources has caused conflict in Niger Delta, Plateau and other areas.

Land Ownership

Disputes over ancestral land boundaries between pastoralists and farmers have led to deadly clashes in the North Central zone.

Religious Differences

Mistrust and extremism between Christians and Muslims have resulted in riots and militant attacks nationwide.

Power Tussles

Political power contests across ethnic and regional divides have bred electoral and communal violence.

Weak Governance

Government corruption, negligence and lack of accountability have enabled the spread of violence.


Economic frustration and lack of opportunity, especially among youth, contribute to unrest.

A nuanced understanding of these root factors and their interconnections is important for impactful peace interventions.

Strengthening Key Institutions

Reforming and empowering Nigeria’s institutions is vital to address drivers of conflict and build trust:

Security Agencies

Improving the capacity of law enforcement and boosting inter-agency coordination to prevent and respond to violence.


Fast-tracking prosecution of perpetrators and ensuring fair, transparent delivery of justice.

Anti-Corruption Bodies

Intensifying the fight against corruption across government and public life to promote good governance.

Electoral Commission

Conducting free and fair elections is accepted by all to reduce power struggles and violence.

Human Rights Commission

Addressing violations and protecting citizens through legal initiatives and education.

Strong public institutions that citizens can rely on are essential for managing conflict and long-term stability.

Driving Equity and Inclusion

Promoting equity and inclusivity for all groups in Nigeria weakens fault lines and enables harmony:

Equal Opportunities

Ensuring equitable access to education, employment and public services regardless of ethnicity, faith or region. Strictly enforcing anti-discrimination laws.

Inclusive Governance

Fair representation of all identity groups in leadership, administration and decision-making bodies to give everyone a voice.

Targeted Development

Special programs to uplift disadvantaged communities through economic empowerment schemes, infrastructure projects etc. to reduce resentment.

Multicultural Policies

Introducing ethnic and religious diversity education across schools. Mainstreaming cultural sensitivity in public and private sectors.

Eliminating real and perceived inequalities and exclusion is a powerful strategy for conflict prevention.

Decentralizing Power

Decentralizing governance and resource control from federal to state and local institutions can alleviate key triggers:

  • Devolving more economic and political authority over resources, security, land etc. to state/local governments based on regional needs.
  • Increasing the share of revenues allocated to oil-producing areas and mineral-rich states to address feelings of inequality.
  • Giving communities greater participation in development projects affecting their resources.
  • Having traditional leaders and institutions play a larger role in local peace and justice processes.

Managed decentralization and devolution of power reduces resentment and risks of marginalization.

Employing Transitional Justice

Transitional justice mechanisms like truth commissions, reparations etc. are necessary for reconciliation:


Platforms for victims from all sides to recount experiences and be acknowledged, to heal trauma.


Providing financial compensation and rehabilitation support to victims of violence.

Institutional Reform

Removing leaders and changing practices in government, security and justice systems responsible for abuses.


Conditional amnesty for low-level perpetrators who fully confess and surrender weapons.

Reconciliation Activities

Interfaith and interethnic dialogues, joint community projects etc. to rebuild trust.

Transitional justice facilitates honest reckoning of the past, restitution, and renewed social contract between citizens and the state.

Deploying Peacekeepers

Expanding the presence of joint military and police peacekeeping forces trained in community engagement, mediation and de-escalation in hotspots can limit conflicts from spreading. Work in close coordination with state governments, elders and civil society groups on the ground. Deploy more peacekeepers during elections.

Enacting Legislative Reforms

Progressive constitutional and legal reforms addressing structural inequality drivers are vital:

Resource Ownership

Clear legislation on resource rights is balanced between states and communities to limit disputes.

Land Tenure

Defining mechanisms for resolving competing land claims between herders, farmers and communities.

Anti-Discrimination Laws

Strict laws criminalizing discrimination in employment, housing, education etc.

Hate Speech/Violence

Penalizing hate speech and propaganda that directly provokes or incites violence between groups.

Electoral Codes

Regulations to curb voter fraud and post-poll violence.

New social contracts codified in law reduce uncertainty and polarization across Nigeria’s diverse population.

Leveraging Interfaith Dialogue

Constructive interfaith initiatives between Christian and Muslim leaders can powerfully counter religious divides:

Joint Statements

Top religious bodies issuing joint statements condemning violence and extremism by fringe groups from their faiths.

Common Platforms

Forming interfaith action committees across communities to jointly advocate for peace and support victims.

Theological Reforms

Re-educating youth and clergy to eliminate teachings/narratives of religious supremacy that breed intolerance.

Cultural Exchanges

Facilitating interfaith sports, workshops, and community service activities to build relationships, especially among youth.

Mainstream interfaith partnerships provide social authority for combatting religious prejudice and violence.

Investing in Deradicalization

Major investments needed in programs to deradicalize militants and extremists for sustainable peace:

Non-Violence Training

Educating radicals in nonviolent activism, conflict resolution and anger management.

Religious Re-education

Using credible Islamic/Christian leaders to correct misinterpretations of holy texts used to justify violence.

Vocational Training

Providing livelihood skills and opportunities for those involved in militant groups due to economic reasons.

Rehabilitation Centres

Establishing secure centres staffed with psychosocial counsellors to facilitate complete deradicalization.

Community Integration

Sensitizing communities to facilitate acceptance and reintegration of deradicalized persons.

Deradicalization centred on education, counselling and rehabilitation offers a constructive solution for addressing extremism.

Promoting Cross-Cultural Exposure

Increasing exposure and exchanges between Nigerians of diverse ethnicities and faiths, especially youth, reduces prejudices and fosters unity:

National Service

Making National Youth Service mandatory for university graduates with postings to regions different than their origin.

Federal Schools

Establishing more federally-administered secondary boarding schools with multi-ethnic enrolment.

Language Training

Incorporating modules on Nigeria’s major native languages in the national curriculum.


Organizing Olympics-style national games and cultural festivals celebrating Nigeria’s ethnic diversity.

Student Exchanges

Partnering with universities across regions for semester exchange programs, remote course sharing etc.

Positive intercultural contact and friendships at a young age are powerful for building mutual understanding and national identity.

Leveraging Civil Society

Nigeria has a vibrant civil society with a critical role to play in peacebuilding:

Peace Messaging

Running campaigns dispelling dangerous myths and stereotypes about other groups through media, community engagement etc.

Monitoring Early Warning Signs

Tracking and reporting indicators of rising tensions and threats between groups to prevent violence.

Mediation Support

Training community volunteers in peace and conflict resolution to support local mediation efforts.

Trauma Counselling

Establishing counselling networks of religious leaders, social workers, and psychologists to help victims of violence.

Civil society provides decentralized capabilities and resources for peacebuilding across all levels of society.

Universal Youth Empowerment

Targeted initiatives focused on engaging youth positively and productively to limit their mobilization by conflict actors:

Leadership Training

Building a culture of non-violence, civic responsibility and national service among youth leaders.

Youth Councils

Establishing representative youth councils to give young people a voice in decision-making.

Economic Programs

Prioritizing youth in economic empowerment schemes, vocational training etc. to reduce unemployment.


Expanding youth recreational facilities for sports, arts, music, drama etc. to develop creativity and social bonds.

Digital Platforms

Leveraging youth’s digital fluency with campaigns on social media, gaming, and online forums to promote peace.

Productively engaged youth gain a sense of purpose and hope, dialling down risks of radicalization and violence.

Promoting National Identity

Focused nation-building initiatives to foster shared Nigerian identity and values above ethnic/religious divides:

Symbolic Change

Making Nigeria’s Unity Day on October 1st a major national holiday celebrating collective heritage.

National Symbols

Elevating national symbols like flag, anthem, emblem, historical icons etc. through awareness campaigns, monuments and education.

Patriotic Messaging

Adding patriotic themes highlighting Nigeria’s rich diversity into school events, military ceremonies and political speeches.

History Education

Incorporating Nigeria’s pre-colonial history and stories of inter-communal harmony and constitutionalism into school textbooks.

Nationwide Events

Organizing high-profile national events like football leagues, TV shows, government forums etc. that regularly bring together Nigerians from across the country.

Affirming Nigerian identity and national pride provides a counter to divisive ethnic and sectarian narratives.

Key Takeaways

Ending deep-rooted inter-communal conflicts in Nigeria requires committed initiatives across multiple fronts:

  • Addressing root causes like inequality, marginalization, power struggles etc. through structural reforms.
  • Strengthening law enforcement, judiciary, electoral institutions and governance systems.
  • Promoting interfaith partnerships, community reconciliation and deradicalization programs.
  • Prioritizing youth empowerment and cross-cultural exposure to build foundations for a united Nigeria.
  • Leveraging cultural, constitutional, economic and policy reforms to build an inclusive, just and equitable nation.
  • Facilitating truth-telling, restitution and justice regarding past violence.

With ethical political leadership and multi-stakeholder partnerships, Nigeria can overcome divisions by fostering trust, equality and a shared spirit of nationhood.

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